The Inner Workings of an Oil Drill

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Oil and gas are hugely valuable resources that power not only our cars, cities, and homes, but major economies around the world. Today I will discuss the mechanics of the oil drill, used to extract oil and natural gases from beneath the earth’s crust.

Offshore and onshore rigs operate similarly, though the former are configured to allow drilling in a marine environment as opposed to land. Both have the same major function: to create holes in the earth’s subsurface in order to extract and process oil and gas. Though some rigs are operated manually (these are called augers), most are massive structures with dozens of important parts.

The rig itself has many components that support drilling and extraction. Most oil rig systems consist of large diesel engines, which power the electrical generators, which in turn power the mechanical drilling system. The mechanical system is supported by the derrick, a tall support structure which holds the drilling apparatus and allows new sections of pipe to be added during the drilling process. The rig also has a blowout preventer, a valve that relieves pressure and prevents gushing; a mud pit, pump and pipe which store and circulate fluids; and a drill string, which contains the drill collar and bit. Most rigs also have hoisting systems to lift heavy loads.

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So, what’s the drilling process itself like?

First, a surface hole is drilled. The drill bit, collar, and drill pipe are placed into the hole, just above where the oil is thought to be located. When the turntable (which drives the rotation motion) and the kelly (a pipe attached to the turntable) are fastened, the drilling can begin. As the drilling progresses, mud is circulated through the pipe and out of the bit to float rock cuttings out of the hole. As the hole gets deeper, new joints of pipe are added. The pipe, collar and bit can all be removed when a pre-set depth is reached.

Casing pipes are then placed into the hole to prevent it from collapsing, and cement is pumped through and allowed to harden. The entire process (drill, pipe, cement) is repeated until the piping reaches the well’s final depth.

360px-Wellhead-dual_completionAt this point the drilling apparatus is removed so the crew can test for oil, which they do by examining formation, pressure, and rock samples. If they confirm their findings, a perforating gun is lowered into the depth of the reservoir to create holes in the casing through which oil can enter. Tubing is run into the hole as a conduit for the oil to flow through, with a device called a packer used to seal it. A multi-valved structure called a Christmas tree (pictured on the left) is connected to the top of the tube and casing to control the oil flow.

Lastly, special fluids are pumped down to pressure the reservoir rock into releasing the oil flow. The crew puts a pump on the wellhead, and a gear head moves the lever up and down to create suction. The oil obtained is known as crude oil, which is refined to get a final commercial product.

Reza Mostafavi Tabatabaei is an entrepreneur, investor, activist and international businessman who specializes in the oil and gas industry. He is an admirer of Middle Eastern art, culture, and philanthropy, which you can read out more about on his adjacent website RezaMostafaviTabatabaei.org

 

 

Oil in Abu Dhabi: A Brief History of the Industry

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Abu Dhabi, capital of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), holds 94 percent of the country’s oil reserves, and about 9 percent of the entire world’s. The populous region’s oil industry has transformed the city it from a poor fishing town into one of the richest cities on the planet.

The industry began to show glimmers of promise after the decline of the city’s pearl trade, when an agreement to start exploration for oil was made in 1936. The Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) signed this agreement with the ruler at the time, Sheikh Shakhbut.

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In 1939, a seventy-five-year concession was signed with a number of foreign oil companies (FOCs), but things were far from smooth sailing: WWII stalled the operation for years, and local communities suffered from economic hardships, malnutrition and disease.

Gravity surveys finally began in 1946, but stalled in 1950 when the region’s desert terrain and sand dunes proved too much for exploration vehicles. Then, a drilling attempt of Ras Sadr turned up dry, and more drilling off the seismic coast had to be plugged and abandoned.

It wasn’t until 1958 (on the Umm Shaif field) and 1959 (Merban No. 3, later named Bab) that drillers struck commercially viable oil. Oil production and exports started in 1962 and 1963; after 1966 the city amassed enough wealth to transform the region and support the formation of the UAE in 1971.

In 1971, the state-controlled Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) was formed, strategically aligned with Western oil companies like Exxon, Shell and BP. Two oil refineries opened by ADNOC in the early 1979 and 1981, making the UAE entirely self-sufficient in petroleum production.

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Western alliances helped bring Abu Dhabi the best technology for decades more of momentous discoveries. The original concession ended in 2014, so ADNOC is currently allowing the original foreign oil companies it partnered with to continue working before all FOC bids are evaluated and new agreements are reached.

Though the heyday of oil discovery may be over for the time being, expansion continues. Today Abu Dhabi has the sixth largest proven oil reserves (92 million barrels), and remains the eighth biggest oil producer in the world, with an output roughly 3 million barrels per day.

5 Steps Great Leaders Take When Things Go Wrong

A great leader is usually defined by what they do in the times of distress as they know that those heavy decisions not only have an affect on themselves but the people they lead. When things don’t necessarily go as planned, these are five things great leaders do to make the most out of the situation in route to a positive outcome.

Great leaders accept that failure is inevitable:

“The only real mistake is the one from which we learn nothing” – Henry Ford

If you’ve ever tried at something, you’ve experience failure to some capacity. But failure is a major step in the road to success. Every accomplishment or failure is a learning lesson, success and failure are both great teachers. Leaders listen when mistakes are made so that they can better their decisions the next time a similar circumstance arises.

Great leaders confront failure:

Evaluate the situation head on because confronting a failure can turn it around into a success in another form. Don’t shy away from your mistakes or keep them at bay because your own wrong decisions could prove to be your best teachers.

Great leaders are vulnerable:

You’re human! Everyone has made mistakes, it’s moreso about how you respond to these mistakes. Great decision makers don’t hide their mistakes because everyone is susceptible to them, but you can also be vocal about how you’ve responded and overcome. Admitting to your mistakes creates an environment where your team can openly admit failures to and be welcoming to advice that will help them in the future.

Great leaders recover fast:

Often the burden of a mistake can linger and result in future issues. Leaders don’t let this burden them because it can have an adverse affect on their team and the environment they operate within. Seek to recover and use the things you’ve learned to help steer a faster track towards where you want to go.

Great leaders are aware of their responsibility:

Know your duties and how they differentiate from others because decisions or actions may be called of you and you only. Appreciate the duty that comes with the responsibility because you are making decisions not only for yourself but decisions that directly affect your business or your team. Keeping your responsibilities in mind helps you stay focused on what’s important.

 

Abu Dhabi Bio Jet Fuel Project Nears Test Stage

Abu Dhabi seeks to make a move towards a more community conscious airport in Renton, Washington. Boeing, in works with Etihad Airways has been working on developing a biofuel in emirate since early 2014. The goal is to produce a more environmentally friendly jet fuel that their airlines can implement and utilize in all of their planes

The counterparts are looking to expand the production of this bio fuel’s use as it nears it’s testing stage. Boeing and Etihad Airways have started construction for the fuel producing plant on a one-acre trial farm location. In Abu Dhabi, a plant called salicornia bigelovii generates oil that can be used to make the biofuel so it will be planted in the test farm. A Boeing executive says that the plant is expected to be completed in the next three to four months.

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The team expects a relatively soon turn around because they’ve also been in the works with Abu Dhabi National Oil Company’s Takreer and the Masdar Institute and Total.

Julie Felgar, Managing Director, Environmental Strategy and Integration at Boeing Commercial Airplanes, informed reporters that the new bio fuel will be put to the test soon. A small pilot project will run after the test farm’s construction is through and complete.

“We’ll take one year to 18 months to run through a couple of harvest rotations and see what the opportunities are in being able to scale that up,” Felgar told reporters.

This environmentally focused project is a great addition to Boeing’s arsenal. But Boeing is majorly active in this particular industry as The Abu Dhabi project is just one of 19 global biofuel projects underway for the organization. Their team has the inherent focus to develop jet aviation fuel based on biological processes like agriculture or waste in route to reducing the industry’s carbon footprint.

 

Kuwait to Start Offshore Oil Exploration in Two Years

Kuwait prepares to get into oil exploration as they set their sails on an offshore program planning to start in two years. Kuwait expects the program to boost oil output capacity for the country.

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Kuwait Oil Company’s Manager of Planning, Bader Al Attar, said the country’s plans are to add more than 700,000 oil barrels per day from offshore and onshore sources. Currently, most of the country’s oil production originates from the onshore Burgan field, which is the second largest in the world.

Attar told the media that Kuwait wants to up the production capacity of barrels per day to 3.5 million by the last quarter of 2015. He went to say that he expects an output capacity of 4 million bpd by 2020. One of the reasons that there is such a sense of urgency is that KOC hopes to make up for the production lost from two shut oil fields of theirs.

Attar and Kuwait have high hopes for increasing their oil production capacity in their search for new areas. In the meantime, they plan to milk their other energy investments.

The State of Health Care in Iran

The Iranian president, Hassan Rouhani, has promised health care for the entire country for the next four years. Rouhani asserts that the health care plan would be partially backed from funding created through cutting government subsidies.

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Rouhani spoke in a live broadcast interview on Wednesday, Sept. 30th about his mission to create a nation where Iranians are protected under a universal health insurance program. In route to bettering the country’s state of health, Rouhani said that at least five million citizens who are living under the poverty line will be attended to first.

Rouhani continued to say, “Our people face a number of difficulties in their health protection and when they enter a state-run hospital they usually have to obtain their medicine, tests and medical equipment from other places.”

Iran’s health program financing is often referred to as ‘mixed-financing’ because there are different financial privileges for different types of fundraising. General revenue financing, social health care insurance and out-of-pocket payments make up the health care system of Iran, but these plans mainly constitute secondary coverage for those residents insured by social insurance.

In Rouhani’s interview, he also apologized to Iranian citizens who have suffered through certain environments. With this proposed new health program, he plans to fix both health and social issues.

In the current healthcare system, it is difficult to reach universal health care, especially for those living in rural areas of Iran. There have been multiple studies that point to vast inefficiencies in the healthcare system in Iran’s rural society, representing an impairment of the current institutions put in place.

Rural healthcare is a priority at the World Health Organization (WHO), as the issue has led to much international discussion. Though half the world lives in rural areas, most do not receive the same care as their urban counterparts. Though the demands of these rural communities are demanding this inequality be resolved, there is difficulty in its implementation. Chiefly, the health problems in rural regions are different from what individuals experience in urban areas. In the ideal state of “universal health care,” one would expect there to be uniformity across all healthcare institutions, but this is simply not the case. More often, the impoverished regions obtain less quality in their healthcare systems.

Iran’s healthcare system is set to improve the health care institutions in rural areas by establishing health houses responsible for a specific rural region. These health houses are equipped with a staff of healthcare providers called, behvarz, that are employed by their local communities. The behvarz have been instrumental in improving the healthcare system in Iran though various rural community healthcare systems are experiencing difficulties trying to keep up with the changing landscape of Iran’s volatile political, social and environmental ecosystems.

Considering the difficulties that the healthcare system is facing in rural areas of Iran, individuals are encouraged to donate and volunteer. Funds and time can be donated in various capacities: education of healthcare providers, institutional developments, new health house construction, new technology development and community volunteering.

Reza Mostafavi Tabatabaei has focused his philanthropic endeavors on developing healthcare institutions in the underdeveloped regions of Iran. In assisting in the development of new health houses across the country, Reza has aided in improvements in the industry; however, there is still much more that can be done to improve the healthcare system in Iranian rural communities.